What is cryptocurrency and how it works

What is cryptocurrency and how it works?

Although the first cryptocurrencies appeared nearly two decades ago, recent years have exploded interest in cryptocurrencies, especially in trading on exchanges. Despite the attractive opportunities, market volatility is a stark reminder of the risks associated with investing in cryptocurrency.

If you are interested in cryptocurrency as a career, hobby, or source of investment income, you first need to understand the nature of crypto and how it works. In our article, you will find detailed information about cryptocurrency technology and popular cryptocurrencies.

What is cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrency is a new generation of currency. Unlike the physical money we are used to, crypto exists only in digital form. With no centralized regulation like the US dollar or the euro, it relies on a decentralized network of users distributed around the world. It is this network that ensures the security and transparency of digital money transactions.

This peer-to-peer system of digital assets makes it fast, easy, and inexpensive to send and receive payments around the world. No currency exchange is required and there are no high fees. Thanks to cryptographic encryption methods, transactions are protected from unauthorized access and counterfeiting. All cryptocurrency transactions are recorded in public registries, which ensures their traceability and makes it impossible to circulate “dirty” money.

Cryptocurrency was born in 2008, when an unknown developer (or group of developers) under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto published a document describing Bitcoin – the first decentralized digital currency. In 2009, the first version of Bitcoin software was released, allowing users to mine and exchange the new currency without the involvement of a central bank or regulator. Since then, cryptocurrencies have evolved, with many alternative coins and blockchain technologies emerging that have changed the approach to finance and transactions on a global scale.

How does cryptocurrency work?

Cryptocurrencies operate on a distributed public ledger known as the blockchain, which keeps a record of all transactions and is updated by the holders of the currency. Cryptocurrency units are created through the process of mining, which uses computing power to solve complex mathematical problems, resulting in the generation of new coins. Users can also purchase cryptocurrency from brokers and then store and use it through cryptocurrency wallets.

Owning cryptocurrency doesn’t mean owning something tangible. Instead, you have a cryptographic key that allows you to send records or units of measurement from one person to another without the involvement of intermediaries.

Although Bitcoin has been around since 2009, the financial capabilities of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology are still evolving. Today, you can use cryptocurrency to buy goods and services, but for many people, it serves as an investment tool, similar to stocks or precious metals.

Types of cryptocurrency

The generic term “cryptocurrency” hides many types of digital assets that can be divided into two main categories: cryptocurrencies and tokens.

Crypto coins are digital assets that function as a currency on their blockchain network. Examples of crypto coins are Bitcoin, Ethereum, and others. They are created using mining and can be used like regular coins for transactions, stores of value, etc.

Tokens are digital assets created from existing blockchain platforms such as Ethereum. They can have different functions and can be used to represent asset ownership, network participation, or even as a form of digital art (e.g. NFT). Tokens can also be used to verify identity, provide access to services, and other purposes defined by their creators.

Thus, the main difference between crypto-coins and tokens is that crypto-coins function as currency in their blockchain network, whereas tokens are created within existing blockchain platforms and have different functions and uses.

Cryptocurrency examples

There are many cryptocurrencies, among the most famous worth mentioning are:


Launched in 2009 as the first cryptocurrency based on Satoshi Nakamoto’s blockchain technology. Bitcoin is known for its decentralization and limited supply of 21 million coins. It is considered the original digital currency used as a medium of exchange and store of value.


Launched in 2015, Ethereum, introduced the concept of smart contracts, allowing developers to create decentralized applications (DApps) based on the blockchain. Ethereum is also used to create and exchange tokens, not just as a digital currency. After Bitcoin, it is the most popular digital currency.


Created by Charlie Lee in 2011 as the “silver” to Bitcoin’s “gold”.

Litecoin offers faster transactions and improved mining efficiency through the use of the Scrypt algorithm.

Ripple (XRP)

Launched in 2012 by Ripple Labs.

XRP is designed to provide fast and low-cost international payments, based on the Ripple consensus protocol and the RippleNet network. Ripple does not use traditional mining.

Other cryptocurrencies

There are many other cryptocurrencies with different features and purposes, such as:

Cardano is a platform for building sustainable and scalable blockchain applications. It is known for its emphasis on scientific approaches and formal code verification to ensure security and reliability.

Solana is a high-performance blockchain platform that aims to provide high transaction speeds and low fees. It utilizes innovative consensus technologies Proof of History and Tower BFT.

Dogecoin is a joke cryptocurrency based on a popular internet meme. It is known for its friendly and community-oriented atmosphere and has been used in various charity campaigns.

Avalanche is a blockchain platform with high bandwidth and the ability to create its subnets, which promotes scalability and flexibility in deploying decentralized applications.

Polkadot (DOT) is a blockchain platform developed in 2017 to create and connect different blockchains. It utilizes the concept of parallel chain (parachain) to provide scalability and interoperability between different blockchains.

How to buy cryptocurrency?

You may be wondering how to purchase cryptocurrency safely. It usually involves 4 basic steps:

  • Choosing a platform.

Choosing a platform is the first step in buying cryptocurrency. You can choose between traditional brokers and specialized cryptocurrency exchanges.

Traditional brokers are online platforms that offer the ability to buy and sell cryptocurrency as well as other financial assets such as stocks, bonds, and ETFs. These platforms typically offer low trading commissions but have limited features for dealing with cryptocurrencies.

Cryptocurrency exchanges are platforms where you can trade cryptocurrencies directly without intermediaries. Each exchange offers a different set of cryptocurrencies, storage wallets, commission terms, and other features. Some exchanges charge a transaction fee based on trading volume.

When choosing a platform, it is important to compare the cryptocurrencies offered, commission terms, security measures, storage and withdrawal options, and the availability of educational resources.

  • Creating and funding an account.

After choosing a platform, the next step is to fund your account to start trading crypto.

Most cryptocurrency exchanges allow users to purchase cryptocurrency using regular currencies such as US dollars, British pounds, or euros using debit or credit cards, however, this depends on the specific platform. Using credit cards to purchase cryptocurrency is considered risky and some exchanges do not support such transactions due to the high volatility of cryptocurrency. Some credit card issuers may also prohibit the use of cards for cryptocurrency transactions.

Other methods available include ACH transfers and wire transfers. Payment methods and the time it takes to deposit or withdraw funds may vary from platform to platform. It is also important to consider deposit, withdrawal, and trading fees, which can vary depending on the payment method and exchange.

In addition, some platforms may require proof of identity before you can fund your account. Once your identity is confirmed, it may take a few days for funds to be credited to your cryptocurrency account depending on the payment method you choose.

  • Buying cryptocurrency.

Once your account is set up and verified, you will be able to make your first cryptocurrency purchase. To do this, you will need to place an order through the web or mobile platform of your broker or exchange. Selecting the “buy” option, specify the order type, enter the desired amount of cryptocurrency, and confirm the transaction. The same applies to sell orders.

  • Cryptocurrency storage.

Cryptocurrency is usually stored in special crypto wallets, which can be physical devices or online programs to securely store private keys to your assets. Some exchanges provide crypto wallet services, making it easier to store funds directly on the platform, but this is not a common standard.

There are several types of cryptocurrency wallets – “hot” and “cold” wallets.

Hot wallets are online vaults that can be accessed over the internet from any device. They are more convenient to use but have increased security risks due to potential vulnerability to cyberattacks.

Cold wallets are not connected to the internet and are usually physical devices such as USB disks. It is important to keep the key codes to access cold wallets in a safe place, as losing them could result in loss of access to your cryptocurrency assets.

The choice between a hot and cold wallet depends on your preferences for security and ease of use.

How can you mine cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrency mining is the process of creating new crypto coins and confirming transactions on the blockchain. For this purpose, computers that solve complex mathematical problems are used.

The process of mining involves several stages. At first, you need to choose the cryptocurrency you want to mine, after which you will need to install and configure specialized equipment. To do this, you can use ASICs (special devices optimized for mining a particular cryptocurrency) or GPUs (video cards that can be used to mine various cryptocurrencies, especially Ethereum).

Then you need to install the mining software. The most popular programs are:

  • CGMiner;
  • BFGMiner;
  • EasyMiner.

After installing the software, you need to join a mining pool – a group of miners who pool their resources to increase the chances of successfully finding a block. In the pool, rewards are distributed among the participants in proportion to their contribution.

You will also need to create a cryptocurrency wallet to receive mining rewards. After that, you can start the mining process itself. The program will use your equipment to solve mathematical problems and confirm transactions.

Whether mining is worth it depends on your willingness to invest in the equipment and electricity needed for the process. High electricity consumption can make mining unprofitable. You will also need a stable internet connection to constantly connect to the mining pool. In addition, the complexity of mining gradually increases, which can reduce your profits. In other words, mining can be profitable with the right approach and conditions, but it is important to carefully evaluate all aspects and potential risks before you start.

What can you buy with cryptocurrency?

The creators of the first cryptocurrency saw Bitcoin as a means for everyday transactions, allowing you to buy everything from a cup of coffee to expensive items such as real estate. While the use of cryptocurrencies for large transactions is still rare, the number of companies accepting them is slowly growing. Today, you can purchase a wide variety of goods on e-commerce sites.

For example, technology and e-commerce stores such as AT&T and Microsoft accept crypto. Overstock was one of the first platforms to start accepting Bitcoin. Shopify, Rakuten, and Home Depot have also incorporated cryptocurrencies into payment methods.

Some retailers like Bitdials also accept cryptocurrency. Here, for example, you can buy Rolex and Patek Philippe watches in exchange for bitcoins. Some car dealers also accept crypto as payment, including both mass brands and luxury car dealers.

There is also progress in the insurance industry. Swiss company AXA has started accepting bitcoins to pay for insurance policies other than life insurance. In the U.S., Premier Shield Insurance allows customers to pay for home and auto insurance policies with bitcoins.

For purchases from merchants that don’t accept cryptocurrency directly, you can use cryptocurrency debit cards, such as BitPay in the US.

What are the benefits of cryptocurrency and is it a good investment?

Cryptocurrency offers several advantages over traditional currency. First of all, it provides transaction privacy – when using cryptocurrency, there is no need to disclose personal information, which protects against potential theft and fraud. In addition, cryptocurrency operates on a global level, which eliminates the need for currency exchanges and payments for exchange rates, although it may be illegal in some countries. Using cryptocurrency also frees you from the restrictions associated with bank accounts, such as ATM withdrawal limits.

Many types of cryptocurrencies have significantly increased in value in recent years, allowing investors to build up capital. However, deciding whether cryptocurrency is a good investment depends on your goals and skills. The cryptocurrency crisis in 2022 has shown that this market is highly volatile and unpredictable. Trading is a popular short-term cryptocurrency investment strategy that requires active buying and selling operations depending on expected price movements. Many short-term traders analyze average prices over some time to determine the current trend. Mastering technical analysis skills based on past data and trends is essential for successful short-term cryptocurrency investing.

If you are considering investing as a long-term strategy, however, price fluctuations are likely to be less worrisome as they don’t affect the bottom line as much. Bitcoin, for example, is up more than 12,000% since 2009. Ethereum, launched in 2015, has seen even more impressive growth, exceeding 92,000%. While both cryptocurrencies have experienced significant fluctuations in the short term, investors approaching them as long-term assets have realized significant gains.

In addition, new technologies, regulations, and increased usage are expected to further boost the cryptocurrency industry.

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